Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • childhood and adolescence
  • worsening pain over weeks to months
  • mass/swelling

Other diagnostic factors

  • male gender
  • limp
  • history of trauma
  • limited range of motion
  • overlying skin ulceration

Risk factors

  • childhood and adolescence
  • Paget disease
  • radiation therapy
  • Rothmund-Thomson syndrome
  • familial retinoblastoma syndrome
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome
  • fibrous dysplasia
  • chemotherapy
  • male gender

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • conventional radiographs
  • serum alkaline phosphatase
  • serum lactate dehydrogenase
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • CT primary tumor
  • MRI primary tumor
  • CT thorax
  • radionuclide bone scan
  • bone biopsy
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Director of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Program

Associate Professor of Oncology

Bloomberg Children's Center

The Johns Hopkins Hospital

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

DL declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr David Loeb would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Luminita Rezeanu and Dr Michael J. Klein, the previous contributors to this monograph. LR and MJK declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Surgery

Ellis Fischel Cancer Center

University of Missouri

Columbia

MO

Disclosures

ES declares that he has no competing interests.

Locum Consultant Paediatric Oncologist

University College Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

RW declares that she has no competing interests.

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