Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presentation in infancy

Other diagnostic factors

  • tachypnea/SOB
  • failure to thrive
  • exercise intolerance
  • widened pulse pressure
  • machine-like continuous murmur/Gibson murmur in children born at term
  • apnea
  • low diastolic BP
  • irritability
  • diaphoresis
  • increased respiratory symptoms with URI
  • murmur heard only during systole
  • hyperdynamic precordium
  • systolic thrill
  • third heart sound heard at apex
  • mid-diastolic rumble heard at apex
  • bounding peripheral pulses
  • pulmonary rales

Risk factors

  • prematurity
  • maternal rubella
  • respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
  • high altitude
  • family history
  • female gender
  • black race

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CXR
  • ECG
  • echocardiogram
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • cardiac catheterization and angiography
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor, Pediatric Cardiology

Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

JTJ declares that she has no competing interests.

Associate Professor, Pediatrics

University of Utah

Salt Lake City

UT

Disclosures

NMP declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Joyce T. Johnson and Dr Nelangi M. Pinto would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Anji T. Yetman, a previous contributor to this monograph. ATY declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Acting Head

Department of Cardiology

Royal Children's Hospital

Melbourne

Australia

Disclosures

MC declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Internal Medicine

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC)

Lubbock

TX

Disclosures

RB declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Pediatrics

Clinical Director

Pediatric Cardiology

The Children's Hospital

Denver

CO

Disclosures

HMS declares that he has no competing interests.

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