Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • asthenopia (eye strain)
  • distorted retinal reflex
  • Munson sign

Risk factors

  • positive family history
  • presence of myopia
  • Native American, East Asian, Hispanic, or indigenous Brazilian ethnicity
  • eye trauma or surgery
  • genetic syndromes
  • eyelid pathology

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • keratometry
  • corneal topography
Full details

Emerging tests

  • wavefront analysis technology
  • anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Department of Ophthalmology

Assaf Harofeh Medical Center

Tel Aviv University

Israel

Disclosures

EB declares that he has no competing interests.

Principal Investigator

Department of Ophthalmology

Assaf Harofeh Medical Center

Tel Aviv University

Israel

Disclosures

DZ declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology

Cornea External Disease and Refractive Surgery Local Director

Long Island College Hospital Eye Center

Brooklyn

NY

Disclosures

MPE declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon

King's College Hospital

Honorary Research Fellow

Institute of Ophthalmology

London

UK

Disclosures

GG declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Department of Ophthalmology

Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute

University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine

Denver

CO

Disclosures

RD serves on the speakers bureaux for Alcan Inc and Allergan Inc. The work for these companies does not conflict with the review or nature of this monograph.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer