Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: August  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • twin birth
  • nonvaried supine sleep and resting position
  • decreased prone awake time
  • head tilt
  • head rotated with decreased active rotation to affected side
  • decreased head righting to contralateral side
  • sternocleidomastoid (SCM) mass
  • ipsilateral shoulder elevation
  • plagiocephaly/craniofacial asymmetry
  • hypertropia on contralateral side
  • hip click or asymmetry

Risk factors

  • plagiocephaly
  • breech delivery
  • cesarean section delivery
  • twin A (lower in utero)
  • complicated deliveries (forceps or vacuum)
  • birth trauma

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • cervical spine x-ray
  • pelvic x-ray
  • hip ultrasound
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • neck ultrasound
  • skull x-ray
  • cervical/cranial MRI
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Joyce L. Oleszek

Associate Professor

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

University of Colorado School of Medicine and The Children's Hospital Colorado

Aurora

CO

Disclosures

JLO is co-author of one of the references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Program Director

Tone Management and Mobility

Children's Hospital of Wisconsin

Milwaukee

WI

Disclosures

EAMW declares that she has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer