Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • positive FHx
  • equinus deformity
  • hind foot in varus and adducted
  • forefoot adducted

Other diagnostic factors

  • male gender
  • hip dysplasia
  • neurologic or chromosomal abnormalities
  • smaller lower extremity
  • dimpling, hairy patch along spine line

Risk factors

  • FHx of equinovarus foot deformity
  • male gender
  • associated congenital abnormalities
  • maternal smoking

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of foot
  • dynamic hip ultrasound
  • pelvic radiographs
  • CT foot
  • CT spine
  • abdominal ultrasound
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Scott E. Van Valin

Assistant Professor

Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery

Medical College of Wisconsin

Milwaukee

WI

Disclosures

SEVV declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Orthopaedics

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

Loma Linda University

Loma Linda

CA

Disclosures

SK declares that he has no competing interests.

Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon

Akron Children's Hospital

Akron

OH

Disclosures

MJA declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon

Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital NHS Trust

Oswestry

Shropshire

UK

Disclosures

NK declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant

Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgery

Ninewells Hospital and Medical School

Dundee

Scotland

UK

Disclosures

Not disclosed.

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