Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • self-report
  • inconsistent history
  • agitated state
  • social isolation
  • physical injuries
  • malnutrition and volume depletion
  • improper medication use
  • substance abuse
  • caregiver dominance
  • pressure ulcers
  • shabby appearance
  • genital bleed or wound

Risk factors

  • age >75 years
  • dementia
  • dependence on a caregiver for personal care
  • depression or other mental illness in the caregiver
  • substance abuse by the older person or the caregiver
  • financial dependence of the caregiver on the older adult

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CBC
  • platelet function studies
  • basic metabolic profile (including BUN and creatinine)
  • clinical photograph
  • x-rays
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • CT head
  • CT abdomen
  • serum levels of relevant medications
  • toxicology screen (urine and blood)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

Department of Family and Geriatric Medicine

School of Medicine

University of Louisville

Louisville

KY

Disclosures

JPG declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor Emeritus in Geriatrics

Department of Family and Geriatric Medicine

School of Medicine

University of Louisville

Louisville

KY

Disclosures

JGOB declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Josephine P. Gomes and Professor James O'Brien would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Angela R. Wetherton and Dr Senthil R. Meenrajan, the previous contributors to this monograph. ARW and SRM declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

Mayo Medical School

Jacksonville

FL

Disclosures

KM has been paid as a speaker at the American College of Physicians annual meeting. KM has also been paid for consultation for the physician excellence program.

Assistant Professor of Medicine

University of Colorado School of Medicine and the Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Denver

CO

Disclosures

CL declares that she has no competing interests.

Associate Professor of Medical Gerontology

Department of Medical Gerontology

School of Medicine

Trinity College Dublin

Dublin

Ireland

Disclosures

DON declares that he has no competing interests.

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