Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • diplopia
  • eye misalignment
  • amblyopia

Other diagnostic factors

  • abnormal eye movements
  • visual confusion
  • asthenopia
  • intermittent closure of one eye
  • cranial nerve palsy

Risk factors

  • family history of strabismus
  • prematurity
  • refractive error

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • cover test
  • simultaneous prism and cover test (SPCT)
  • uncover test (UCT)
  • alternate prism cover test (APCT)
  • Hirschberg test
  • Krimsky test
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • version testing
  • duction testing
  • forced duction testing
  • CT or MRI of orbit
  • MRI of brain
  • CT chest
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Daniel J. Salchow

Director

Pediatric Ophthalmology; Strabismus; Neuro-ophthalmology

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin

Berlin

Germany

Disclosures

DJS declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology

Department of Surgery

University of New Mexico School of Medicine

Albuquerque

NM

Disclosures

RBA declares that he has no competing interests.

Ophthalmology Consultant

City Hospitals Sunderland

Sunderland

UK

Disclosures

PT declares that he has no competing interests.

Specialist Registrar in Ophthalmology

Ophthalmics

Royal Victoria Infirmary

Newcastle

UK

Disclosures

JS declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer