Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Transient idiopathic dystonia of infancy
  • Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy
  • Congenital torticollis
  • Primary paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD)
  • Drug-related dystonia
  • Dyskinetic cerebral palsy
  • Post-traumatic dystonia
  • Near drowning
  • Primary stereotypies
  • Secondary stereotypies
  • Secondary infantile torticollis (SIT)
  • Seizure

Uncommon

  • Primary paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD)
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC)
  • Primary torsion dystonia
  • Dopa-responsive dystonia (Segawa syndrome, dystonia-parkinsonism with diurnal fluctuation)
  • Paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia GLUT1
  • Infantile parkinsonism-dystonia
  • Myoclonus-dystonia syndrome
  • Kernicterus
  • Glutaric aciduria type I (CGDH deficiency)
  • Methylmalonic acidemia
  • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
  • Infantile GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease)
  • Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies
  • Secondary paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD)
  • Secondary paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD)
  • Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN)
  • Infantile epileptic-dyskinetic encephalopathy (ARX)
  • Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS)
  • Paroxysmal tonic upgaze of infancy

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Kenneth Silver

Associate Professor

Department of Pediatrics and Neurology

University of Chicago

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

KS is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

The author wishes to acknowledge the contribution of Muruvet Elkay, MD to this monograph. ME declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Neurobiology, Anatomy and Pediatrics

University of Rochester

Strong Memorial Hospital

Rochester

NY

Disclosures

JM is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Assistant Professor in Child Neurology and Developmental Pediatrics

1st Department of Pediatrics

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Thessaloniki

Greece

Disclosures

DZ declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Paediatric Neurologist

General Neurology & Complex Motor Disorders Service

Evelina Children’s Hospital

Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust

London

UK

Disclosures

JPL declares that he has no competing interests.

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