Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • pelvic pain
  • bloating and early satiety
  • palpable adnexal mass

Risk factors

  • premenopausal age group
  • early menarche
  • first trimester of pregnancy
  • personal history of infertility or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
  • increased intrinsic or extrinsic gonadotropins
  • tamoxifen therapy
  • smoking
  • personal or family history of endometriosis

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • transvaginal ultrasonography
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • serum CA-125
  • color power Doppler ultrasonography of abdomen/pelvis
  • MRI of abdomen/pelvis
  • CT imaging of abdomen/pelvis
  • karyotype analysis
  • laparoscopy/laparotomy and histopathology
Full details

Emerging tests

  • PET imaging of abdomen/pelvis
  • human epididymis protein 4 (HE4)
  • OVA1® (serum biomarkers)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Michael P. Hopkins

Professor and Chairman

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Program Director

Northeast Ohio Medical University

Aultman Health Foundation OB/GYN Residency

Canton

OH

Disclosures

MPH declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Instructor of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Northeast Ohio Medical University

Aultman Health Foundation OB/GYN Residency

Canton

OH

Disclosures

LMB declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Michael P. Hopkins and Dr Lauren M. Blue would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jay R. Patibandla and Dr Laura K. Randolph, previous contributors to this monograph. JRP and LKR declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Consultant in Family Medicine

Parker D Sanders and Isabella Sanders Professor of Primary Care

Rochester

MN

Disclosures

JB declares that he has no competing interests.

Chair

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Virginia Commonwealth University

Richmond

VA

Disclosures

DC declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist

Birmingham Women's Hospital

Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Birmingham

UK

Disclosures

TJC declares that he has no competing interests.

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