Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: October  2016

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • characteristic posturing of joint
  • pain
  • inability to move joint
  • tenderness
  • swelling
  • normal neurologic function of shoulder and elbow
  • sciatic nerve injury with hip dislocation
  • injury to the femoral artery, vein, or nerve with hip dislocation
  • concomitant injury with hip dislocation
  • cruciate ligament injury with patellar dislocation
  • meniscal tears with patellar dislocation
  • ligamentous injuries of the knee with patellar dislocation
  • patellar or quadriceps tendon rupture with patellar dislocation

Other diagnostic factors

  • ecchymosis with finger dislocation
  • hemarthrosis with patellar dislocation

Risk factors

  • sports-related activities
  • motor vehicle accident
  • ligamentous laxity
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • males between adolescence and 40 years of age
  • women ages 61 to 80 years
  • prior history of joint instability
  • skeletal or muscular dysplasia
  • high Q angle
  • external tibial torsion
  • patella alta

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • plain x-rays of the shoulder
  • plain x-rays of the finger
  • plain x-rays of the knee
  • plain x-rays of the elbow
  • plain x-rays of the pelvis
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • MRI scan of the knee
  • MRI scan of the shoulder
  • CT scan of the elbow
  • CT scan of the pelvis
  • arteriogram of the knee or shoulder
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

The San Antonio Orthopaedic Group

San Antonio

TX

Disclosures

TMD has been a consultant for Arthrex Inc, Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation (MTF), EMOVI, and Cotera. He has received research support from Arthrex Inc, MTF, and Histogenics, and has received patent remuneration from Arthrex Inc. TMD is on the Data Safety Monitoring Board of Aesculap Inc and the Editorial Board of Current Orthopaedic Practice.

Dr Thomas M. DeBerardino would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Paul Novakovich and Dr Brent Ponce, previous contributors to this monograph. PN and BP declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Co-director of Orthopedic Sports and Shoulder Service

Department of Orthopedic Surgery

Naval Medical Center San Diego

San Diego

CA

Disclosures

DJS declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Director

Orthopaedic Shoulder and Sports Surgery

Naval Medical Center San Diego

San Diego

CA

Disclosures

MTP declares that he has no competing interests.

Head of Orthopaedic Surgery

Women's & Children's Hospital

Adelaide

South Australia

Australia

Disclosures

PC declares that he has no competing interests.

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