Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • sudden-onset blurring or distortion of vision
  • drusen
  • macular pigmentary changes
  • geographic atrophy
  • choroidal neovascularization

Other diagnostic factors

  • pigment epithelial detachment (exudative AMD)
  • progressive loss of vision in 1 or both eyes
  • fibrovascular scar formation
  • pseudodrusen

Risk factors

  • increasing age
  • smoking
  • FHx of disease

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • Amsler grid
  • optical coherence tomography
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • fluorescein angiography
  • indocyanine green (ICG) angiography
  • autofluorescent imaging
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Consultant Ophthalmologist

Manchester Royal Eye Hospital

Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Professor of Ophthalmology & Matrix Biology

Centre for Hearing and Vision Research

University of Manchester

UK

Disclosures

PB has undertaken research activities and received research grants (from charities and the Medical Research Council) that relate to basic mechanisms underpinning age-related macular degeneration. He is also submitting patent applications concerning potential new treatments for age-related macular degeneration. He does not believe that any of these activities are competing interests with respect to the content of the monograph.

Dr Paul Bishop would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Leon Charkoudian and Dr Joshua L. Dunaief, the previous contributors to this monograph. LC and JLD declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Vitreoretinal Surgery

Duke University Eye Center

Durham

NC

Disclosures

SF declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences

Centre for Vision Science

Queen's University Belfast

Belfast

UK

Disclosures

UC declares that she has no competing interests.

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