Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Viral upper respiratory infection
  • Nasal polyps
  • Chronic inflammatory sinus disease
  • Frontal or occipital trauma
  • Concussive injury caused by frontal or occipital blow to head
  • Aging

Uncommon

  • Chemical exposure
  • Drug exposure
  • Radiation therapy of head and neck
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Parkinson disease
  • Anterior craniotomy
  • Craniofacial procedures
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener)
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Sjogren syndrome
  • Sinonasal tumors
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma
  • Olfactory groove meningioma
  • Turner syndrome
  • Kallmann syndrome

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Allen M. Seiden

Professor of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

University of Cincinnati

Cincinnati

OH

Disclosures

AMS declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

ENT Consultant and Honorary Senior Lecturer

University of Aberdeen

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery

Aberdeen Royal Infirmary

Aberdeen

UK

Disclosures

SKM declares that she has no competing interests.

ENT Consultant

Royal National Throat, Nose, and Ear Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

SG declares that he has no competing interests.

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary

Harvard Medical School

Boston

MA

Disclosures

EHH declares that he has no competing interests.

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