Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • chest pain
  • dyspnea
  • extreme breathlessness
  • trachea shifted to contralateral side
  • hyperexpanded ipsilateral hemithorax
  • hyper-resonant ipsilateral hemithorax
  • ipsilateral absent or diminished breath sounds

Risk factors

  • cigarette smoking
  • FHx of pneumothorax
  • tall and slender body build
  • age <40 years
  • recent invasive medical procedure
  • chest trauma
  • acute severe asthma
  • COPD
  • tuberculosis
  • AIDS-related Pneumocystis jirovecii infection
  • cystic fibrosis
  • lymphangioleiomyomatosis
  • Marfan syndrome
  • homocystinuria
  • primary lung cancer and metastatic cancer to the lungs
  • Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome
  • pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis
  • Erdheim-Chester disease

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • CT chest
  • chest ultrasound
  • bronchoscopy
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor

Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine

James H. Quillen College of Medicine

Johnson City

TN

Disclosures

RPB declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Ryland P. Byrd Jr would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Thomas M. Roy and Dr Anita Alwani, the previous contributors to this monograph. TMR and AA declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor and Chief Executive Officer of Respiratory Division

Interventional Endoscopy Clinic

University Hospital Brussels

Brussels

Belgium

Disclosures

MN declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Medicine

Division of Pulmonary Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine

Medical University of South Carolina

Charleston

SC

Disclosures

SAS declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer