Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2016

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • seizures
  • nuchal rigidity
  • decreased level of consciousness
  • focal neurologic deficit

Risk factors

  • smoking
  • moderate- to high-level alcohol consumption
  • FHx subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • previous subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • heritable connective tissue disease
  • hypertension
  • head trauma
  • intracranial infection
  • tumor
  • arteriovenous malformations or fistulas
  • drug abuse

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CT head
  • lumbar puncture
  • conventional catheter-based angiogram
  • CT angiography
  • magnetic resonance angiography
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Department of Clinical Neurosciences

Neurosurgical Unit

University of Palermo

Palermo

Italy

Disclosures

GG declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Grasso would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Michael Chen, the previous contributor to this monograph. MC is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Research Director

Stroke Center/The Neurological Institute

Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center

New York

NY

Disclosures

JHC declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Neurologist

Addenbrookes Hospital

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

PM declares that he has no competing interests.

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