Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • COPD
  • Multilobar pneumonia
  • Foreign body aspiration
  • Drug use (narcotics, alcohol, sedatives, anesthetics)
  • Oxygen therapy in COPD
  • CNS infarct or hemorrhage
  • Head trauma
  • CNS infection
  • Hypoventilation syndrome in obesity
  • Pleural effusion
  • Pneumothorax
  • Obesity
  • Kyphoscoliosis
  • Hypokalemia
  • Hypophosphatemia
  • Inadequate mechanical ventilation

Uncommon

  • Cardiogenic pulmonary edema
  • Acute lung injury/ARDS
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Status asthmaticus
  • Laryngospasm
  • Angioedema
  • Primary alveolar hypoventilation
  • Empyema
  • Hemothorax
  • Flail chest
  • Scleroderma
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Fibrothorax
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Paralytic agents and organophosphates
  • High cord trauma/lesions (above C4)
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Polymyositis and dermatomyositis
  • Phrenic nerve trauma
  • Tetanus
  • Botulism
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Sepsis
  • Fever/malignant hyperthermia
  • Insufflation of CO2 into body cavity (e.g., laparoscopic surgery)

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Chapel Hill

NC

Disclosures

MBD declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor of Medicine

Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine

University of Toronto

Toronto General Hospital

Toronto

Canada

Disclosures

EF declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Director

Intensive Care Unit

West Los Angeles VA Healthcare Center

Clinical Professor of Medicine

Geffen School of Medicine

UCLA

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

GSH declares that he has no competing interests.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System (VAPAHCS)

Palo Alto

CA

Disclosures

HP declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

Galway University Hospitals

Senior Lecturer in Anaesthesia

National University of Ireland

Galway Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

University College Hospitals

Galway

Ireland

Disclosures

Not disclosed.

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