Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: May  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • cough
  • influenza-like illness
  • dyspnea
  • fever
  • rales, rhonchi
  • wheeze
  • decreased breath sounds
  • tachypnea

Other diagnostic factors

  • abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea
  • altered mental status
  • seizures

Risk factors

  • close contact with infected birds
  • recent travel to an HPAI-H5N1 virus infected country
  • environmental exposure to H5N1 virus
  • close contact with infected humans
  • laboratory work with H5N1 virus

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CBC with differential
  • LFTs
  • CXR
  • pulse oximetry
  • sputum Gram stain
  • sputum and blood bacterial culture
  • reverse transcription (RT)-PCR of respiratory specimens for H5N1 virus and influenza A and B viruses
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • viral culture of respiratory specimens
Full details

Emerging tests

  • serologic testing for H5N1-specific antibody for retrospective diagnosis
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Affiliate Assistant Professor of Medicine & Global Health

University of Washington

Seattle

WA

Disclosures

JRO declares that he has no competing interests.

Chief Medical Officer

Influenza Division

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Atlanta

GA

Disclosures

TMU declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Medical Director of Infection Control

Infectious Disease

Department of Medicine

SUNY Upstate Medical University

Syracuse

NY

Disclosures

WJ declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care

Ghent University

Belgium

Disclosures

ADS declares that she has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine

Associate

Center for Health Policy/Center for Primary Care & Outcomes Research

Stanford University School of Medicine

Stanford

CA

Disclosures

NK declares that she has no competing interests.

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