Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • otalgia
  • preceding upper respiratory symptoms
  • bulging tympanic membrane
  • myringitis

Other diagnostic factors

  • irritability
  • sleep disturbance
  • fever
  • decreased appetite

Risk factors

  • day care attendance
  • older siblings
  • young age
  • FHx
  • Native American or Native Alaskan
  • male gender
  • absence of breastfeeding
  • supine feedings (bottle propping)
  • pacifier use
  • environmental tobacco smoke
  • lower socioeconomic status
  • craniofacial anomaly
  • immunologic deficiency

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • tympanometry
  • acoustic reflectometry
  • bacterial culture
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Pediatric Associates of Charlottesville PLC

Assistant Clinical Professor of Pediatrics

University of Virginia Health System

Charlottesville

VA

Disclosures

CEA declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Carlos E. Armengol would like to gratefully acknowledge the late Professor J. Owen Hendley, a previous contributor to this monograph. JOH declared that he had no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Chief

ENT Department

Istanbul Training and Research Hospital

Istanbul

Turkey

Disclosures

OY is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Retired consultant paediatric otolaryngologist

Formerly at Sheffield Children's Hospital

Sheffield

UK

Disclosures

PB declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Professor of Pediatrics

Georgetown University and George Washington University School of Medicine

Professor of Pediatrics

Medical College of Virginia

Clinical Professor

University of Virginia Medical College

Charlottesville

VA

Disclosures

At the time of the peer review, RS declared no competing interests. We have been informed that Dr Schwartz is now deceased.

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