Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: October  2016

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • recent trauma
  • ankle pain and swelling
  • inability to weight-bear
  • medial and/or lateral malleolus swollen and tender to palpation

Other diagnostic factors

  • "pop" heard on fall
  • ankle deformity
  • crepitus
  • tenderness of the proximal fibula
  • tenting of the skin over the medial malleolus
  • Ottawa ankle rules
  • hx osteoporosis
  • hx frequent falls
  • vascular compromise

Risk factors

  • osteoporosis
  • multiple falls
  • low-energy fall
  • inversion injury to ankle
  • playing sports

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • plain radiograph "stress view"
  • CT
  • MRI
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Resident

Orthopaedic Surgery

OLVG

Amsterdam

The Netherlands

Disclosures

ESV declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon

Joint Research

Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis

Amsterdam

The Netherlands

Disclosures

RWP declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Ewout S. Veltman and Dr Rudolf W. Poolman would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Mohit Bhandari and Dr Brad Petrisor, previous contributors to this monograph, as well as Dr Victor A. van de Graaf and Dr Dirk P. ter Meulen for their assistance with the final draft. MB and BP declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon

Edinburgh Orthopaedic Trauma Unit

Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh

Edinburgh

UK

Disclosures

CCB is an author of several references cited in this monograph.

Professor

University of Kentucky School of Medicine

President and Chief Executive Officer

American Board of Family Medicine

Lexington

KY

Disclosures

JCP declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine

Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

Piscataway

NJ

Disclosures

PHC declares that he has no competing interests.

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