Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea
  • infertility
  • galactorrhea
  • loss of sexual desire (libido)
  • erectile dysfunction
  • visual deterioration (e.g., temporal hemianopia)

Other diagnostic factors

  • osteoporosis
  • ophthalmoplegia
  • headaches

Risk factors

  • genetic predisposition (e.g., presence of mutation resulting in multiple endocrine neoplasia-1[MEN-1], familial isolated pituitary adenoma [FIPA])
  • estrogen therapy
  • female gender, 20 to 50 years of age
  • male gender, 30 to 60 years of age

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • serum prolactin
  • pituitary MRI
  • computerized visual-field examination
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Clinical Senior Lecturer in Endocrinology

Imperial Centre for Endocrinology

Department of Medicine

Imperial College London

London

UK

Disclosures

NM declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Niamh Martin would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Ilan Shimon, the previous contributor to this monograph. IS receives consultancy and lecturing fees from Pfizer, Israel. IS is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor

Division of Endocrinology

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

MM is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

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