Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • weakness
  • fatigue
  • cold intolerance

Other diagnostic factors

  • decreased memory
  • constipation
  • muscle cramps
  • weight gain
  • depression
  • dry, coarse skin
  • oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea
  • bradycardia
  • reduced body and scalp hair
  • delayed relaxation of deep tendon reflexes
  • hearing impairment
  • impassive facial expression
  • diabetes insipidus (DI)
  • headache
  • diplopia
  • decreased peripheral vision
  • skin depigmentation
  • atrophic breasts
  • galactorrhea

Risk factors

  • multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type I
  • age - between 5 and 14 years and older than 65 (craniopharyngiomas)
  • age - second to fifth decades (prolactinomas)
  • age - fourth to eighth decades (nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas)
  • sarcoidosis
  • head and neck irradiation
  • traumatic brain injury (TBI)
  • histiocytosis
  • hemochromatosis
  • pregnancy
  • family hx of central hypothyroidism

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • serum free T4
  • serum TSH
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • MRI of brain
  • CT head
  • prolactin (PRL)
  • 9 a.m. serum cortisol
  • serum testosterone
  • serum gonadotropins
Full details

Treatment algorithm

ONGOING

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Consultant Endocrinologist

King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

London

UK

Disclosures

JG declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Jacqueline Gilbert would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Rasa Zarnegar, a previous contributor to this monograph. RZ declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

Department of Endocrine Surgery

Columbia University

New York

NY

Disclosures

JL declares that he has no competing interests.

Director of Clinical Endocrinology

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Boston

MA

Disclosures

JVH declares that he has no competing interests.

Sir Arthur Hall Professor of Medicine/Pro Vice Chancellor

University of Sheffield

Sheffield

UK

Disclosures

AW declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer