Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Cystitis
  • Urethritis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Vulvovaginitis
  • Balanitis
  • Acute prostatitis
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Urolithiasis
  • Local irritants

Uncommon

  • Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • Epididymo-orchitis
  • Cervicitis
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Urethral stricture/stenosis
  • Honeymoon cystitis
  • Instrumentation or catheterization
  • Sexual abuse
  • Athletics
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Atrophic vaginitis
  • Spondyloarthropathies
  • Noninfectious prostatitis
  • Ketamine bladder
  • Urinary fistula
  • Prostate cancer
  • Bladder cancer
  • Renal cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Urethral cancer
  • Penile cancer
  • Drugs or herbs
  • Depression
  • Somatization disorder (urethral hypersensitivity)

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Kasra Saeb-Parsy

Consultant Urologist

Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Cambridge

UK

Honorary Lecturer

Anglia Ruskin University

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

KS-P declares that he has no competing interests.

Post-CCT Specialty Registrar

Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

EL declares that she has no competing interests.

Kasra Saeb-Parsy and Elaine Lee would like to acknowledge Dr Vincent J. Gnanapragasam, a previous contributor to this topic. VJG declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Urology

Institute of Cellular Medicine

Newcastle University

Newcastle upon Tyne

UK

Disclosures

RP has received funding from the UK NHS (NIHR) to undertake commissioned reviews of treatment for benign prostatic enlargement.

Instructor

Department of Urology

Mayo Clinic

Scottsdale

AZ

Disclosures

GM declares that he has no competing interests.

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