Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • previous skin cancer
  • bleeding
  • crusting
  • evidence of sun damage to skin
  • tender or itchy nonhealing wound originally caused by trauma
  • erythematous papules or plaques
  • thin, flesh-colored or erythematous plaques
  • dome-shaped nodule
  • exophytic, fungating, verrucous nodules or plaques
  • ulcerated tumors
  • lymphadenopathy
  • bone pain
  • hepatomegaly
  • neurologic signs

Risk factors

  • UV radiation exposure
  • immunosuppression
  • fair skin
  • human papillomavirus
  • hereditary skin conditions
  • older age
  • male sex
  • ionizing radiation
  • carcinogens
  • actinic keratosis
  • previous skin cancer
  • tobacco smoking
  • thiazide diuretics and cardiac drugs
  • tattoos

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • CT body scan
  • MRI scan
  • PET scan
  • CBC with differential
  • LFTs
  • chest x-ray
Full details

Emerging tests

  • noninvasive imaging technologies
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Keyoumars Soltani

Professor

Department of Medicine

Director of Immunopathology

Laboratory Section of Dermatology

The University of Chicago

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

KS declares that he has no competing interests.

Adaobi I. Nwaneshiudu

Assistant Professor

Department of Dermatology

Department of Pathology

Director of Dermatopathology

Director of Women's Health/Ethnic Skin

Temple University School of Medicine

Philadelphia

PA

Disclosures

AIN declares that she has no competing interests.

Prof K. Soltani and Dr A. I. Nwaneshiudu would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Carlos Paz and Dr Jessica M. Sheehan, the previous co-contributors to this monograph. CP and JMS declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Clinical Professor of Dermatology

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

New York City

NY

Disclosures

NS declares that she has no competing interests.

Associate Head

Associate Professor

Department of Dermatology

University of Illinois

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

IA declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor of Dermatology & Otolaryngology

Director of Mohs, Dermatologic & Laser Surgery

Director of Surgical Training

Department of Dermatology & Cutaneous Surgery

University of Miami

Miami

FL

Disclosures

KN declares that he has no competing interests.

Senior Lecturer and Honorary Consultant Dermatologist (Barts and the London NHS Trust)

Institute of Cellular and Molecular Science

London

UK

Disclosures

JMG declares that she has no competing interests.

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