Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • nocturia
  • urinary frequency
  • urinary hesitancy
  • dysuria
  • abnormal digital rectal exam examination
  • hematuria
  • weight loss/anorexia
  • lethargy
  • bone pain
  • palpable lymph nodes

Risk factors

  • age >50 years
  • black ethnicity
  • North American or northwest European descent
  • family history of prostate cancer
  • high levels of dietary fat

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • PSA
  • testosterone
  • LFTs
  • CBC
  • renal function
  • prostate biopsy
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • bone scan
  • plain radiographs
  • pelvic CT scan
  • pelvic MRI/endorectal MRI
Full details

Emerging tests

  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided prostate biopsy
  • urinary biomarkers
  • serum biomarkers
  • 18F-sodium fluoride PET/CT and 11C-choline PET/CT
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Radiation Oncologist

Richmond Radiation Oncology Associates

Bon Secours Cancer Institute

Richmond

VA

Disclosures

TJW declares that he is the Principle Investigator of an R-21 NIH research grant investigating the tumor-mediated immune responses in African-American men with prostate cancer.

Professor

Department of Radiation Oncology

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Houston

TX

Disclosures

MSA declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Clinical Oncology Registrar

St Luke's Cancer Centre

Royal Surrey Hospital

Guildford

Surrey

UK

Disclosures

EA has received consultation fees from the following organizations during the past 3 years: Blue Cross/Blue Shield Association, Sanofi-Aventis, Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer Corporation, American Urological Association, National Institutes of Health, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Hartford County Medical Association. EA owns shares in Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Johnson and Johnson, and General Electric Corporation.

Medical Director

UConn Medical Group

University of Connecticut Health Center

Farmington

CT

Disclosures

PA declares that he has no competing interests.

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