Absolute insulin deficiency; insulin treatment required.
Most often presents with a few days or weeks of polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, and weakness.
Some patients may present with diabetic ketoacidosis.
Microvascular complications: retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy.
Macrovascular complications: coronary artery, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disease.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to absolute insulin deficiency. The condition develops due to destruction of pancreatic beta cells, mostly by immune-mediated mechanisms. In some patients there may be no evidence of autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells; this is called idiopathic type 1 diabetes.
Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition and Weight Management
Boston University School of Medicine
Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research
Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial VA Medical Center
VV declares that she has no competing interests.
Associate Professor of Medicine
Harvard Medical School
Brigham and Women's Hospital
RKG is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph, and his institution has received a research grant from AstraZeneca.
Diabetes and Bone Disease
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
ZB declares that he has no competing interests.
Department of Medicine
University of Melbourne
Harold Hamm Oklahoma Diabetes Center
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
AJ has been a (non-salaried) co-investigator on multi-center clinical trials supported by Novo, Eli Lilly, Sanofi-Aventis, and Medtronic. She does not hold any stocks or shares in these companies. She has received a speaker's honorarium from Novo.
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