Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • asymptomatic
  • candidal infections
  • skin infections
  • urinary tract infections

Other diagnostic factors

  • fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • paresthesias
  • polydipsia
  • polyphagia
  • polyuria
  • nocturia
  • unintentional weight loss
  • acanthosis nigricans

Risk factors

  • older age
  • overweight/obesity
  • gestational diabetes
  • prediabetes
  • FHx of type 2 diabetes
  • black, Hispanic, or Native American ancestry
  • physical inactivity
  • polycystic ovary syndrome
  • hypertension
  • dyslipidemia
  • cardiovascular disease

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • HbA1c
  • fasting plasma glucose
  • random plasma glucose
  • 2-hour post-load glucose after 75 g oral glucose
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • fasting lipid profile
  • urine ketones
  • ankle-brachial index (ABI)
  • urinary albumin excretion
  • serum creatinine and estimated GFR
  • ECG
  • dilated retinal examination
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Senior Clinical Investigator

HealthPartners Research Foundation

Minneapolis

MN

Disclosures

PJO receives research funding from the National Institutes of Health on multiple projects, and in the past several years has received funds for travel for consulting or grand rounds at Mayo Clinic, Peking University, and University of Vienna. PJO is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Senior Clinical Investigator

HealthPartners Research Foundation

Minneapolis

MN

Disclosures

JMS-H is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph. She is an inventor on a US patent for Disease Treatment Simulation, a simulation-based technology developed without commercial support to educate health providers on chronic disease management in a virtual environment. She serves as a non-paid member of the board of directors for SimCare Health, a company that has an exclusive license agreement for educational software developed using the simulation technology.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Medical Director

Clinical Improvement Group Health Cooperative

Seattle

WA

Disclosures

DKM declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Director of Diabetes and Endocrinology

Cairns Base Hospital and Diabetes Centre

Queensland

Australia

Disclosures

AKS declares that he has no competing interests.

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