Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Pharyngitis
  • Esophageal candidiasis
  • Stroke
  • Muscle tension dysphagia
  • Diffuse esophageal spasm
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Hiatal hernia
  • Postoperative cervical spine surgery

Uncommon

  • Epiglottitis
  • Retropharyngeal abscess
  • Oropharyngeal carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma) and metastases
  • Zenker diverticulum
  • Cricopharyngeal bar
  • Thyromegaly (goiter)
  • Cervical lymphadenopathy
  • Oropharyngeal stenosis
  • Parkinson disease
  • Vocal cord paralysis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Sjogren syndrome
  • Scleroderma
  • Inflammatory myopathies
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy
  • Wilson disease
  • Tardive dyskinesia
  • Idiopathic achalasia
  • Nutcracker esophagus
  • Caustic agents
  • Pill-induced injury
  • Radiation exposure
  • Esophageal carcinoma
  • Foreign body
  • Benign esophageal tumors (leiomyoma, lipoma, polyps)
  • Esophageal metastases
  • Esophageal compression
  • Schatzki ring
  • Gastroesophageal muscular ring
  • Esophageal diverticulum
  • Eosinophilic esophagitis
  • Esophageal web
  • Botulism
  • Oral mucositis
  • Cervical osteophytes

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Associate Professor of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

Loyola University Medical Center

Maywood

IL

Disclosures

SJC declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Steven J. Charous would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Michael F. Vaezi and Dr Farnoosh Farrokhi, the previous contributors to this monograph. MFV and FF are authors of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Instructor in Medicine

Harvard Medical School

Director of Clinical Research

The Celiac Center

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Boston

MA

Disclosures

DL declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics

Division of Otolaryngology

Children's National Medical Center

Assistant Professor

Otolaryngology and Pediatrics

George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences

Washington

DC

Disclosures

RKS declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

Newcastle University

Honorary Consultant Otolaryngologist

Freeman Hospital

Newcastle-Upon-Tyne

UK

Disclosures

JW declares that she has no competing interests.

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