Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: October  2016

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • dull frontal headache
  • abdominal pain
  • anorexia
  • apathetic-lethargic state
  • constipation
  • cough
  • diarrhea
  • malaise
  • nausea
  • prostration
  • chills
  • hepatomegaly
  • pneumonia
  • relative bradycardia
  • rigors
  • rose spots
  • splenomegaly

Risk factors

  • overcrowded living in endemic areas
  • poor sanitation/untreated water in endemic areas
  • poor personal hygiene in endemic areas
  • visiting endemic countries (e.g., Indian subcontinent, Mexico)
  • travel to areas with poor sanitation within endemic countries
  • ignoring hygiene rules while traveling in endemic countries
  • travel to the Indian subcontinent
  • longer duration of stay in endemic country

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CBC
  • serum aminotransferases
  • blood culture
  • stool culture
  • urine culture
  • bone marrow culture
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • rose spot culture
  • Widal test
Full details

Emerging tests

  • IDL Tubex® test
  • Typhidot-M®
  • sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)/immunoblot
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Eli Schwartz

Professor

Center for Geographical Medicine and Tropical Diseases

Chaim Sheba Medical Center

Tel HaShomer Hospital

Clinical Professor of Medicine

Sackler Faculty of Medicine

Tel Aviv University

Tel Aviv

Israel

Disclosures

ES is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Bradley A. Connor

Clinical Associate Professor

Weill Medical College of Cornell University

New York Center for Travel and Tropical Medicine

New York City

NY

Disclosures

BAC declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Senior Lecturer (Honorary Consultant)

Division of Medical Microbiology and Genitourinary Medicine

School of Infection and Host Defence

University of Liverpool

Liverpool

UK

Disclosures

CP declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor

Department of Pathology

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Dallas

TX

Disclosures

PMS declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer