Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • prior oropharyngeal or facial trauma
  • prior herpetic outbreak
  • sensory/motor changes

Risk factors

  • increased age
  • multiple sclerosis
  • female
  • HTN

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • intraoral radiographs
  • MRI
  • trigeminal reflex testing
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Gaetan Moise

Assistant Professor of Neurological Surgery

Columbia University Medical Center

New York

NY

Disclosures

GM declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor Gaetan Moise would like to gratefully acknowledge Professor Christopher J. Winfree, a previous contributor to this monograph. CJW declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Chief

Section of Functional and Restorative Neurosurgery

North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System

New York

NY

Disclosures

AYM declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Division of Neurosurgery

Duke University Medical Center

Durham

NC

Disclosures

RKO declares that he has no competing interests.

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