Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • FHx of early onset of CHD or dyslipidemia in first-degree relatives
  • hx of cardiovascular disease
  • consumption of saturated fats and trans-fatty acids
  • excess body weight (especially abdominal obesity)
  • xanthelasmas
  • tendinous xanthomas

Other diagnostic factors

  • arcus corneae with onset before the age of 45 years
  • tuberous xanthomas

Risk factors

  • insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • excess body weight (BMI >25 kg/m^2)
  • cigarette smoking
  • hypothyroidism
  • cholestatic liver disease
  • nephrotic syndrome
  • use of certain medications

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • lipid profile
  • serum TSH
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Raul D. Santos

Associate Professor of Medicine

Director Lipid Clinic Heart Institute (InCor)

University of Sao Paulo Medical School Hospital

Sao Paulo

Brazil

Disclosures

RDS has received honoraria for consulting, speaker activities and research from Astra Zeneca, Amgen, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Cerenis, Eli Lilly, Genzyme, Kowa, Pfizer, and Sanofi/Regeneron.

Seth S. Martin

Assistant Professor of Medicine/Cardiology

Associate Director

Lipid Clinic

Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

SSM has received honoraria from the American College of Cardiology for educational activities. SSM is listed as a co-inventor on a pending patent filed by Johns Hopkins University for a novel method of LDL-cholesterol estimation. SSM received a charitable gift for the VLDL big data project from the Trone Foundation. SSM has received research support from the PJ Schafer Cardiovascular Research Fund, American Heart Association, Aetna Foundation, Google, and Apple. SSM has acted as a consultant for Abbott Nutrition, Pressed Juicery, Quest Diagnostics, Sanofi/Regeneron, Amgen, and the Pew Institute.

Dr Raul D. Santos and Dr Seth S. Martin would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Martin Engelhardt and Dr Michael Miller, the previous contributors to this monograph. ME declares that he has no competing interests. MM has received research grant support and honoraria for lectures from AstraZeneca, Merck-Schering Plough, and Pfizer. MM has received consulting fees from Pfizer, Merck-Schering Plough, and Roche.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Noninvasive Cardiology

MetroHealth Campus

Case Western Reserve University

Cleveland

OH

Disclosures

MLA declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant/Senior Lecturer in Diabetes & Metabolism

The Royal Oldham Hospital & University of Manchester Cardiovascular Research Group Diabetes Centre

Royal Oldham Hospital

Oldham

UK

Disclosures

DB declares that he has no competing interests.

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