Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Primary hyperparathyroidism
  • Malignancies producing PTH-like peptide
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Bone secondaries or leukemia

Uncommon

  • Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
  • Vitamin D intoxication
  • Lithium
  • Thiazide diuretics
  • Chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypervitaminosis A
  • Milk-alkali syndrome
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Prolonged immobilization
  • Paget disease

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Consultant Endocrine and General Surgeon

National University Cancer Institute, Singapore

Singapore

Disclosures

RP declares that he has no competing interests.

Fellow

Endocrine and Minimally invasive Surgery

National University Hospital

Singapore

Disclosures

HS declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Rajeev Parameswaran and Dr Hirshikesh Salgaonkar would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Ronald Merrell, the previous contributor to this monograph. RM declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Director

Endocrinology

Department of Internal Medicine

VA Medical Center

University of Iowa

Iowa City

IA

Disclosures

UK declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Professor

Department of Family Medicine

University of North Carolina

Chapel Hill

Assistant Program Director

MAHEC Rural Family Medicine Residency

Hendersonville

NC

Disclosures

WM declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant and Senior Lecturer

Endocrine Unit

Newcastle University and Royal Victoria Infirmary

Newcastle-upon-Tyne

UK

Disclosures

RQ has been reimbursed by Amgen, the manufacturer of Cinacalcet, for attending a conference and for giving an educational seminar (total under £1,200 over past 3 years).

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