Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • flu-like illness with low-grade fever, fatigue, and arthralgia

Other diagnostic factors

  • cough
  • shortness of breath
  • bilateral crackles

Risk factors

  • infectious pneumonia
  • connective tissue diseases
  • immunologic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease
  • organ transplantation
  • medication use
  • breast radiation therapy
  • exposure to toxins

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CXR
  • high-resolution chest CT scan (HRCT)
  • CBC
  • ESR
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • PFTs
  • video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy
  • CK
  • anticardiolipin antibodies
  • lupus anticoagulant antibodies
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Gary R. Epler

Clinical Associate Professor

Harvard Medical School

Boston

MA

Disclosures

GRE is an author of several references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Medicine and Director

Division of Pulmonary/Critical Care/Allergy/Sleep Medicine

Medical University of South Carolina

Charleston

SC

Disclosures

SS declares that he has no competing interests.

National Jewish Medical and Research Center

Denver

CO

Disclosures

TLC has been reimbursed by the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), American Academy of Sleep Medicine, American Thoracic Society, and Cephalon, the manufacturer of modafinil, for attending several conferences. He has been paid by the ACCP for running educational programs and by Elsevier for serving as consultant of the Sleep Medicine Clinics. He has also received research funding from the National Institutes of Health, Respironics, Restore, and Schwarz Pharma, and has been a member of the speakers' bureau for GlaxoSmithKline.

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