Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: September  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • residence in, or travel to, the Middle East (or country where there is an active outbreak) in previous 14 days
  • age >14 years
  • fever
  • cough
  • dyspnea

Other diagnostic factors

  • hemoptysis
  • diarrhea
  • abdominal pain
  • nausea/vomiting
  • chills/rigors
  • myalgia
  • arthralgia
  • malaise
  • headache
  • sore throat
  • rhinorrhea
  • tachypnea
  • tachycardia
  • cyanosis
  • chest pain
  • crackles/rales on auscultation

Risk factors

  • residence in, or travel to, the Middle East (or country where there is an active outbreak) in previous 14 days
  • close contact with infected individuals
  • exposure to infected dromedary camels
  • age ≥50 years
  • diabetes mellitus
  • chronic renal impairment
  • heart disease
  • obesity
  • tobacco smoking

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CBC
  • comprehensive metabolic panel
  • pulse oximetry
  • blood cultures
  • real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
  • chest x-ray
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • RT-PCR sequencing assay
  • serology
  • CT chest
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Infectious Diseases Consultant

King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital

Jeddah

Saudi Arabia

Disclosures

SS is the author of several references cited in this monograph.

Adult Infectious Diseases Consultant

King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center

Riyadh

Saudi Arabia

Disclosures

ASO is the author of several references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Professor of Pulmonary Medicine and Infectious Diseases

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Respiratory Medicine Clinic

General Hospital G. Papanikolaou

Thessaloniki

Greece

Disclosures

IPK declares that he has no competing interests.

Chief

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health

University of Virginia

Charlottesville

VA

Disclosures

WAP declares that he has no competing interests.

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