Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • asymptomatic
  • cervical bruit
  • focal neurologic deficit lasting >24 hours (i.e., stroke)
  • focal neurologic deficit lasting <24 hours (i.e., transient ischemic attack [TIA])

Other diagnostic factors

  • transient visual symptoms

Risk factors

  • older age
  • hx of hypertension
  • smoking
  • hx of cardiovascular disease
  • hx of hypercholesterolemia

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • duplex ultrasonography
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • computed tomography angiography (CTA) of head, neck, and chest
  • magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of head, neck, and chest
  • cervical angiography
  • CT brain
  • MRI brain
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor of Vascular Surgery

University of Maryland School of Medicine

Chief of the Vascular Service

Baltimore VA Medical Center

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

BKL is an author or co-author of several references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor and Chief

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

NYU Langone Medical Center

New York

NY

Disclosures

MAA declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Surgery and Radiology

Yale University School of Medicine

New Haven

CT

Disclosures

JEI declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Surgical Education

Consultant Vascular Surgeon

Sheffield Vascular Institute

Sheffield

UK

Disclosures

JDB declares that he is on the Steering Committee of ICSS and ECST-2 Trials.

Professor of Vascular Surgery

Vascular Surgery Group

Division of Cardiovascular Sciences

Leicester Royal Infirmary

UK

Disclosures

RN declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Vascular Surgery

Head, Department of Vascular Surgery

Athens Medical Center

Athens

Greece

Disclosures

CDL declares that he has no competing interests.

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