Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • normal physical exam
  • poor skin turgor and/or dry mucous membranes
  • confusion
  • fatigue
  • constipation
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea
  • polyuria
  • polydipsia
  • bone pain
  • use of hypercalcemia-inducing medication
  • stupor
  • coma

Risk factors

  • nonmetastatic malignancy
  • metastatic skeletal involvement
  • lymphoma

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • total serum calcium
  • serum ionized calcium
  • serum albumin
  • comprehensive metabolic panel
  • resting ECG
  • serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  • serum parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP)
  • serum phosphorus
  • serum calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D)
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Fellow

Division of Endocrinology

Department of Medicine

University of California, Los Angeles

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

AS declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Division of Endocrinology

Department of Medicine

University of California, Los Angeles

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

DM declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor

Endocrinology Fellowship Training Program

Department of Clinical Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism

City of Hope National Medical Center

Duarte

CA

Disclosures

KCC declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant and Senior Lecturer

Endocrine Unit

Newcastle University and Royal Victoria Infirmary

Newcastle-upon-Tyne

UK

Disclosures

RQ has been reimbursed by Amgen, the manufacturer of Cinacalcet, for attending a conference and for giving an educational seminar (total under £1,200 over past 3 years).

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