Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • rectal bleeding, pain, or mass

Other diagnostic factors

  • inguinal node mass
  • features of distant metastasis

Risk factors

  • HPV
  • HIV
  • men who have sex with men
  • immunosuppression
  • anal trauma
  • anal fistula
  • Crohn disease

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • anoscopy
  • biopsy of tumor
  • anal ultrasound
  • abdominopelvic CT scan
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • CXR or chest CT scan
  • PET scan
  • inguinal node needle biopsy
Full details

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor and Frank T. McGraw Memorial Chair

Deputy Division Head

Radiation Oncology

MD Anderson Cancer Center

Houston

TX

Disclosures

BDM has received honoraria for advisory boards from Genentech.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Department of Radiation Oncology

Duke University Medical Center

Durham

NC

Disclosures

BC declares that he has no competing interests.

Chief and Associate Professor

Department of Radiation Oncology

Boston University Medical Center

Boston

MA

Disclosures

LK has received funding from the US Department of Defense to perform research on non-anal cancers. LK is the author of a study referenced in this monograph.

Consultant Colorectal Surgeon

Assistant Director

The Polyposis Registry

St Mark's Hospital

Harrow

UK

Disclosures

SC declares that she has no competing interests.

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