Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • male gender
  • dyspnea
  • daytime sleepiness
  • morning headache
  • impaired cough
  • repeated lower respiratory tract infections
  • BMI >30 kg/m^2
  • increased pulmonic component of second heart sound (P2)
  • lower-extremity edema
  • right-sided third heart sound (S3 gallop)
  • left-sided fourth heart sound (S4 gallop)

Risk factors

  • body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m^2
  • restrictive thoracic disorders
  • CNS disorders
  • obstructive airway disease

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • arterial blood gas
  • serum bicarbonate
  • pulse oximetry
  • Hct
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • pulmonary function tests
  • respiratory muscle strength
  • CXR
  • polysomnogram
  • echocardiogram
  • TSH
  • PHOX2B gene
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor of Medicine

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

Temple University School of Medicine

Philadelphia

PA

Disclosures

SK is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Professor Samuel Krachman would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Gerard Criner, a previous contributor to this monograph. GC declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Consultant Physician

Royal Brompton Hospital

Honorary Senior Lecturer

National Heart and Lung Institute

Imperial College

Department of Respiratory Medicine

London

UK

Disclosures

MH declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor of Medicine

Physiology and Neuroscience

New York University School of Medicine

New York

NY

Disclosures

KIB declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer