Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Inadvertent trauma
  • Lichen planus
  • Contact stomatitis
  • Recurrent aphthous stomatitis
  • Sinus tract
  • Herpes simplex virus infection
  • Herpangina
  • Hand-foot-and-mouth disease

Uncommon

  • Iatrogenic trauma (medical or dental procedure)
  • Self-inflicted trauma
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Folate deficiency
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Vitamin C deficiency
  • Pemphigus
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid
  • Linear IgA bullous dermatosis
  • Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita
  • Oral lichenoid reaction
  • Chemicals/medications
  • Erythema multiforme
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis
  • Necrotizing sialometaplasia
  • Behcet disease
  • Periodic fever syndromes
  • Reactive arthritis (Reiter syndrome)
  • Lupus erythematosus
  • Giant cell arteritis
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener)
  • Graft-versus-host disease
  • Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • Tuberculosis
  • Varicella-zoster virus infection
  • Cytomegalovirus infection
  • Zygomycosis
  • Aspergillosis
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Blastomycosis
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis
  • Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Malignant salivary gland tumors (mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma)
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Kaposi sarcoma
  • Oral melanoma
  • Antiresorptive agent-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ)
  • Chronic ulcerative stomatitis

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor

Oral Medicine Subject Expert

Department of Comprehensive Dentistry

UTHSCSA School of Dentistry

San Antonio

TX

Disclosures

MAH is an author and co-author of a number of references cited in this monograph. He lectures extensively on oral medicine-related topics. MAH has been reimbursed by Met Life for the development of web-based continuing education courses. He has been reimbursed for speaking at local, state, and national dental meetings.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Academic Head

Oral Medicine and Special Needs Dentistry Unit

Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic, Medical and Surgical Sciences

UCL Eastman Dental Institute

Professor of Oral Medicine

University of London

London

UK

Disclosures

SP declares that he has no competing interests.

Oral Medicine Attending & Associate Surgeon

Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry

Brigham and Women's Hospital

Assistant Professor

Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity

Harvard School of Dental Medicine

Boston

MA

Disclosures

NT declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Division of Oral Pathology

College of Dental Medicine

Medical University of South Carolina

Charleston

SC

Disclosures

AC declares that she has no competing interests.

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