Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: September  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • vaginal bleeding
  • abdominal pain
  • uterine contractions
  • uterine tenderness

Other diagnostic factors

  • lower back pain
  • fetal death

Risk factors

  • chronic hypertension
  • preeclampsia
  • smoking
  • cocaine use
  • trauma
  • prior cesarean delivery
  • preterm premature rupture of the membranes
  • multiparity
  • advanced maternal age
  • polyhydramnios
  • chorioamnionitis
  • uterine malformations
  • prior placental abruption
  • multifetal gestations
  • oligohydramnios
  • uterine leiomyomas
  • thrombophilias

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • fetal monitoring
  • Hb and Hct
  • coagulation studies
  • Kleihauer-Betke (K-B) test
  • ultrasound
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Yinka Oyelese

Perinatologist

Atlantic Health System

Morristown

NJ

Disclosures

YO is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Anthony M. Vintzileos

Chairman

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Winthrop University Hospital

Mineola

Professor

Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Medicine

Stony Brook School of Medicine

Stony Brook

NY

Disclosures

AMV is a consultant for BD (for development of the ODON fetal extraction device).

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology

University of Rochester School of Medicine

Rochester

New York

NY

Disclosures

CG declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant/Senior Lecturer in Obstetrics and Gynaecology

St George's Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

AU declares that he has no competing interests.

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