Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • scrotal mass
  • transillumination
  • enlargement of scrotal mass following activity
  • variation in scrotal mass during the day

Risk factors

  • male sex
  • prematurity and low birth weight
  • infants <6 months of age
  • infants whose testes descend relatively late
  • increased intraperitoneal fluid or pressure
  • inflammation or injury within the scrotum
  • testicular cancer
  • connective tissue disorders
  • varicocelectomy
  • filariasis
  • maternal exposure to polybrominated biphenyl

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Barry A. Kogan

Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics

Albany Medical College

Albany

NY

Disclosures

BAK has no competing interests.

Erim Erdem

Professor of Urology

Mersin University School of Medicine

Department of Urology

Mersin

Turkey

Disclosures

EE is an associate member of the Paediatric Urology Guidelines Working Panel.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Director

Center for Male Fertility

Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute

Cleveland

OH

Disclosures

ES declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Department of Urology

Head

Section of Male Infertility and Andrology

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

Madison

WI

Disclosures

DHW declares that he has no competing interests.

Senior Lecturer in Urology

University of Bristol

Bristol

UK

Disclosures

MD declares that he has no competing interests.

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