Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • painless scrotal mass
  • left-sided signs/symptoms
  • small testicle

Other diagnostic factors

  • infertility
  • age >12
  • scrotal or groin pain

Risk factors

  • somatometric parameters (tall/low BMI)
  • FHx of varicocele

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • scrotal ultrasound with color flow Doppler imaging
  • semen analysis
  • serum FSH (± GnRH stimulation)
  • serum testosterone
  • DNA fragmentation index (DFI)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Pravin Rao

Urologist

Department of Urology

Mid-Atlantic Permanente Medical Group

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

PR declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Pravin Rao would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Miguel Pineda, Dr John C. Thomas, and Dr Wayne Kuang, previous contributors to this monograph. MP, JCT, and WK declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

Division of Pediatric Urology

University of Utah

Primary Children's Medical Center

Salt Lake City

UT

Disclosures

SO declares that she has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Pediatric Urology

Medical College of Georgia

Augusta

GA

Disclosures

JD declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Department of Urology

Head

Section of Male Infertility and Andrology

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

Madison

WI

Disclosures

DHW declares that he has no competing interests.

Director

Center for Male Fertility

Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute

Cleveland

OH

Disclosures

ES declares that he has no competing interests.

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