Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2016

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • previous nephrolithiasis
  • flank pain
  • hematuria
  • costovertebral angle tenderness
  • dysuria
  • urinary urgency
  • increased frequency of urination
  • groin pain

Risk factors

  • hemihypertrophy
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
  • Caroli disease
  • congenital hepatic fibrosis
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • family history of polycystic kidney disease
  • chronic kidney disease
  • hypercalciuria
  • female gender
  • hyperparathyroidism

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • urinalysis
  • urine culture
  • BUN and creatinine
  • serum electrolytes
  • abdominal radiography
  • renal ultrasound
  • intravenous urography (IVU)
  • noncontrast CT scan
  • CT urogram
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • 24-hour urine monitoring
  • stone analysis
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Associate Professor of Medicine

Clinical Director of Nephrology

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

MJC declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Chief

Division of Nephrology

New York University School of Medicine

New York VA Medical Center

New York

NY

Disclosures

DSG declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Michael J. Choi and Dr David S. Goldfarb would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Amaka Edeani, a previous contributor to this monograph. AE declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Internal Medicine Physician

UT Southwestern Medical Center

Dallas

TX

Disclosures

KS declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Harvard Medical School

Renal Division

Brigham and Women's Hospital

Channing Laboratory

Boston

MA

Disclosures

ENT declares that he has no competing interests.

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