Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • coccyx pain
  • coccygeal tenderness
  • spasm of pelvic floor musculature
  • relief of symptoms after corticosteroid injection

Risk factors

  • female gender
  • history of trauma to coccyx
  • obesity

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • lateral sacrococcygeal x-ray
  • dynamic lateral sacrococcygeal x-rays
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • MRI lumbosacral spine with contrast
  • CT lumbosacral spine
  • WBC
  • ESR
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Rudolph J. Schrot

Neurosurgeon

Sutter Medical Group

Sacramento

CA

Disclosures

RJS declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Specialist Registrar

Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital

Oswestry

UK

Disclosures

BB is the author of some studies referenced in this monograph.

Professor of Orthopedics

Brodsky Chair of Spinal Surgery

Baylor College of Medicine

Houston

TX

Disclosures

SE is the author of a study referenced in this monograph.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer