Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • shoulder stiffness
  • decreased shoulder active range of motion
  • decreased shoulder passive range of motion
  • positive coracoid pain test
  • positive shoulder shrug test

Other diagnostic factors

  • shoulder pain
  • alternative diagnosis not suggested by provocative maneuvers
  • negative Spurling maneuver (to exclude cervical spine radiculopathy)
  • negative Hawkins test (to exclude rotator cuff impingement)
  • negative Neer test (to exclude shoulder impingement)
  • negative Speed test (to exclude superior labrum from anterior to posterior [SLAP] tear)
  • negative O'Brien test (to exclude superior labrum from anterior to posterior [SLAP] lesion)
  • negative Yergason test (to exclude proximal biceps tendon pathology)
  • negative apprehension test (to exclude anterior shoulder instability)
  • negative relocation test (to further exclude anterior shoulder instability)
  • negative Kim test (to exclude posteroinferior labral lesion of the shoulder)

Risk factors

  • age 40 to 70 years
  • diabetes mellitus
  • prior hx of adhesive capsulitis
  • shoulder pain and immobilization
  • previous shoulder surgery
  • female gender
  • thyroid disease

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • plain film radiographs
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • MRI/MR arthrogram shoulder
  • CT arthrogram
Full details

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Matthew T. Provencher

Complex Shoulder Knee and Sports Surgery

The Steadman Clinic

Steadman Philippon Research Institute

Vail

CO

Disclosures

MTP is a consultant for Arthrex and JRF. MTP receives royalties from Arthrex.

Lance LeClere

Staff Surgeon

Team Physician

Orthopaedic Sports Medicine and Shoulder Surgery

Naval Health Clinic

US Naval Academy

Annapolis

MD

Disclosures

LL declares that he has no competing interests.

Jennifer Smith

Staff Surgeon

Orthopaedic Surgery

Naval Health Clinic New England

Newport

RI

Disclosures

JS declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Orthopedic Surgeon

Cincinnati Sports Medicine Research and Education Foundation

Cincinnati

OH

Disclosures

MB declares that he has no competing interests.

Co-Director of Orthopedic Sports and Shoulder Service

Department of Orthopedic Surgery

Naval Medical Center San Diego

San Diego

CA

Disclosures

DS declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon

Guy's and St Thomas’ Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

London

UK

Disclosures

SC declares that he has no competing interests.

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