Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • duration <1 hour (benign hiccups)
  • duration >1 hour (persistent intractable hiccups)
  • persistence during sleep
  • associated features of underlying cause
  • weight loss and malnutrition

Risk factors

  • aerophagia, temperature changes, and emotional states
  • diaphragmatic and phrenic nerve irritation
  • vagus nerve irritation
  • CNS disorders
  • metabolic/electrolyte abnormalities
  • toxins/drugs
  • psychogenic disorders
  • sedation or anesthesia

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • CBC
  • serum electrolytes
  • BUN
  • CRP and ESR
  • liver function tests
  • gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT)
  • serum amylase
  • toxicology screen
  • arterial blood gas
  • ECG
  • CXR
  • pulmonary function tests
  • CT abdomen
  • endoscopy of the upper GI tract
  • CT or MRI head
  • lumbar puncture
  • otoscopy
  • pharyngoscopy
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Peter Kranke

Professor of Anaesthesia

Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care

University of Würzburg Hospital

Würzburg

Germany

Disclosures

PK is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Assistant Physician and Study Subinvestigator

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care

University Hospital of Wuerzburg

Wuerzburg

Germany

Disclosures

YJ declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor Peter Kranke and Dr Yvonne Jelting would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Thomas M. Metterlein, a previous contributor to this monograph. TMM declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Consultant Anaesthetist and Associate Director of Research and Development

Director

Lancaster Patient Safety Research Unit

Royal Lancaster Infirmary

Lancaster

UK

Disclosures

AS declares that he has no competing interests.

Registrar

Department of Surgical Gastroenterology

Herlev Hospital

University of Copenhagen

Denmark

Disclosures

SKB declares that he has no competing interests.

Academic Director of Pain Management

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology

Department of Anesthesiology

Albany Medical College

Albany

NY

Disclosures

HS is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

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