Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Dental (periodontal) disease
  • Upper respiratory tract infection
  • Antimicrobial/antihypertensive therapy
  • Chemotherapy/radiotherapy to the head and neck
  • Dental procedure-related trauma
  • Tonsillectomy
  • Middle ear surgery
  • Bell's palsy
  • Medication-related
  • Burning mouth syndrome

Uncommon

  • Chronic middle ear infections
  • Upper airway endoscopy
  • Oral surgical procedures
  • Skull base surgery
  • Ramsay Hunt's syndrome
  • Stroke
  • Head trauma
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Alzheimer's dementia
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Epilepsy
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Sjogren's syndrome
  • Renal insufficiency
  • Liver failure
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Pontocerebellar angle tumours
  • Paraneoplastic syndrome
  • Iron deficiency
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Zinc deficiency

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Weill Cornell Medical College

Division of Oncology

New York

NY

Disclosures

AB declares that he has no competing interests.

Consulting Staff

Director of Oral Health Services

Division of Head and Neck Surgery

Professor of Oral Medicine

Department of Surgery

City of Hope

Duarte

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

JE declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Andrei Barasch and Dr Joel Epstein would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Stéphanie Collet, Dr Basile Nicolas Landis, and Dr Philippe Rombaux, previous contributors to this monograph. SC is an author of a reference cited in this monograph. BNL has been reimbursed for speaking on olfactory disorders at a neuroscience meeting in Switzerland and is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph. PR is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

ENT Specialist

Department of Otorhinolaryngology

University of Dresden Medical School

Dresden

Germany

Disclosures

VG declares that he has no competing interests.

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