Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: May  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • hyphaema
  • ecchymosis
  • severe eye pain
  • blurred vision
  • corneal abrasions
  • corneal oedema
  • corneal erosions
  • sub-conjunctival haemorrhages
  • conjunctival lacerations
  • punctated epithelial erosions
  • loss of sight

Other diagnostic factors

  • excessive lacrimation
  • conjunctival chemosis
  • conjunctival hyperaemia
  • corneal epithelial defect
  • open globe injury
  • eyelid burns
  • photophobia
  • diplopia
  • miosis
  • corneal stromal clouding
  • iridodialysis
  • conjunctival foreign body
  • corneal foreign body
  • Descemet's membrane tears
  • corneoscleral lacerations
  • persistent headache
  • loss of consciousness
  • blood or clear fluid from ears or nose
  • inability to move eye(s)

Risk factors

  • age 18 to 45 years
  • male gender
  • no protective eyewear
  • workplace injuries
  • fireworks
  • excessive exposure to sunlight
  • previous eye surgery

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • CT scan of head and orbit
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • plain x-ray
  • B-scan ultrasonography
  • ultrasound biomicroscopy
  • MRI scan of head
  • optical coherence tomography (OCT)
  • fluorescein angiography
  • fundus autofluorescence
  • urine drug screen
  • sickle cell anaemia test
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Ron Adelman

Associate Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Science

Department of Ophthalmology

Yale University School of Medicine

New Haven

CT

Disclosures

RA is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Ophthalmologist

Department of Ophthalmology

Yale University School of Medicine

New Haven

CT

Disclosures

ERR declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology

Mount Sinai Medical School

New York

NY

Disclosures

PP is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Consultant Ophthalmologist

Sunderland Eye Infirmary

Sunderland

UK

Disclosures

SF declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Ophthalmologist

Sunderland Eye Infirmary

Newcastle

UK

Disclosures

DA declares that he has no competing interests.

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