Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • history of haematological malignancy
  • pre-existing renal compromise
  • syncope/chest pain/dyspnoea
  • seizures

Other diagnostic factors

  • nausea and vomiting
  • anorexia
  • diarrhoea
  • muscle weakness
  • muscle cramps
  • lethargy
  • paraesthesia
  • lymphadenopathy
  • splenomegaly
  • hypertension/hypotension
  • oliguria/anuria/haematuria
  • solid tumour malignancy
  • laryngeal spasm
  • tetany
  • Trousseau sign
  • Chvostek sign
  • peripheral oedema

Risk factors

  • haematological malignancy
  • large tumour burden
  • chemosensitive tumours
  • recent chemotherapy
  • renal impairment
  • dehydration
  • advanced age
  • nephrotoxic medication

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • serum uric acid
  • serum phosphate
  • serum potassium
  • serum calcium
  • full blood count
  • lactate dehydrogenase
  • serum creatinine
  • serum urea
  • urine pH
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Clinical Professor of Medicine

University of Colorado

Denver

CO

Disclosures

TM declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Tariq Mughal would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr James Larkin and Dr Anastasia Constantinidou, previous contributors to this monograph. JL and AC declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Medicine and Oncology

University of Toronto

Toronto

Ontario

Canada

Disclosures

SE declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Clinical Oncologist

Guy's & St. Thomas' NHS Trust

Honorary Senior Lecturer

Imaging Sciences Division

King's College Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

DL declares that he has no competing interests.

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