Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: August  2016

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • fever
  • headache
  • malaise
  • myalgia
  • arthralgia
  • nausea
  • small erythematous lesion with or without necrotic centre
  • non-specific rash

Other diagnostic factors

  • vomiting
  • diarrhoea
  • abdominal pain
  • cough
  • dyspnoea
  • stiff neck
  • confusion
  • photophobia
  • stupor
  • coma
  • seizures
  • lymphadenopathy
  • jaundice
  • hepatomegaly
  • splenomegaly
  • secondary infections

Risk factors

  • tick bite/exposure
  • immunosuppression
  • age over 60 years
  • male sex

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • FBC
  • LFTs
  • peripheral blood smear
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • immunofluorescence antibody assay
  • PCR
Full details

Emerging tests

  • Western immunoblotting
  • culture
  • immunohistochemistry
Full details

Treatment algorithm

INITIAL

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor

Department of Pathology

University of Texas Medical Branch

Galveston

TX

Disclosures

JPO is the author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Professor of Pediatrics

West Virginia University School Of Medicine

Morgantown

WV

Disclosures

LSN declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

London

UK

Disclosures

RR declares that he has no competing interests.

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