Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: December  2017



History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • reduced urine production
  • vomiting
  • dizziness
  • orthopnoea
  • paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea
  • muscle tenderness
  • limb ischaemia
  • seizures
  • prostatic obstructive symptoms
  • haematuria
  • pulmonary oedema
  • hypotension
  • tachycardia
  • orthostatic hypotension
  • fever
  • rash
  • arthralgia/arthritis
  • hypertension
  • peripheral oedema
  • altered mental status
  • signs of uraemia

Other diagnostic factors

  • nausea
  • thirst
  • flank pain
  • abdominal distention
  • abdominal bruit
  • livedo reticularis
  • petechiae
  • ecchymoses

Risk factors

  • advanced age
  • underlying renal disease
  • malignant hypertension
  • diabetes mellitus
  • myeloproliferative disorders, such as multiple myeloma
  • connective tissue disease
  • sodium-retaining states (e.g., CHF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome)
  • radiocontrast
  • exposure to nephrotoxins (e.g., aminoglycosides, cancer therapies, NSAIDs, or ACE inhibitors)
  • trauma
  • haemorrhage
  • sepsis
  • pancreatitis
  • drug overdose
  • surgery
  • cardiac arrest
  • recent vascular intervention
  • excessive fluid loss
  • nephrolithiasis
  • drug abuse
  • alcohol abuse
  • excessive exercise
  • recent blood transfusion
  • malignancy
  • genetic susceptibility
  • use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • basic metabolic profile (including urea and creatinine)
  • ratio of serum urea to creatinine
  • urinalysis
  • urine culture
  • FBC
  • fractional excretion of sodium
  • fractional excretion of urea
  • urinary eosinophil count
  • venous blood gases
  • fluid challenge
  • bladder catheterisation
  • urine osmolality
  • urine sodium concentration
  • renal ultrasound
  • CXR
  • ECG
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • ANA
  • anti-DNA
  • complement (C3, C4, CH50)
  • anti-glomerular basement membrane
  • anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)
  • acute hepatitis profile
  • HIV serology
  • cryoglobulins
  • ESR
  • anti-streptolysin-O antibody
  • abdominal CT or MR scan
  • nuclear renal flow scan
  • cystoscopy
  • renal biopsy
Full details

Emerging tests

  • novel serum and urinary biomarkers
Full details

Treatment algorithm


Authors VIEW ALL

Professor of Medicine

Nephrology Division

Stanford University Medical Center




RL works as a consultant and researcher for Relypsa, Inc. Although unrelated to this topic area, RL also works as a consultant for Fibrogen, Inc.; Mallinckrodt, Inc.; and Alexion, Inc.; and as a researcher for Genentech, Inc.; Mallinckrodt, Inc.; GlaxoSK, Inc.; Rigel, Inc.; Aurinia, Inc.; and the NIH.

Dr Richard Lafayette would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Sandra Sabatini, Dr Neil Kurtzman, and Dr Corey D. Ball, the previous contributors to this monograph. SS, NK, and CDB declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Medicine

Section of Nephrology

Department of Medicine

Baylor College of Medicine




GE declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Nephrologist


North Staffs Royal Infirmary

University Hospital of North Staffordshire




DdT declares that he has no competing interests.

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