Last reviewed: November 2017
Last updated: November  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • ill-defined ache
  • pain aggravated by compressive force
  • Q angle
  • pain on palpation of patellar retinaculum
  • patellar tilt test
  • mediolateral glide test
  • patellar mobility test
  • patellar apprehension test
  • patellar maltracking test
  • decreased muscle flexibility
  • muscle weakness

Risk factors

  • bony and structural abnormalities
  • iliotibial band tightness
  • abnormal patellar mobility
  • quadriceps muscle weakness
  • subtalar joint pronation
  • hip internal rotation
  • gait deviations

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • knee x-ray
  • MRI
  • kinematic MRI or CT
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Michael Fredericson

Associate Professor and Director

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics

Stanford University

Stanford

CA

Disclosures

MF declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Michael Fredericson would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jong In Lee and Dr Julia Arroyo, previous contributors to this monograph. JIL and JA declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Clinical Associate Professor

Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Baylor College of Medicine

Houston

TX

Disclosures

JC declares that he has no competing interests.

Physician

Sharp Rees-Stealy Medical Group

La Mesa

San Diego

CA

Disclosures

JH declares that he has no competing interests.

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